Non-hydrostatic atmosphere:

  • Zängl, G. et al. (2015). The ICON (ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic) modelling framework of DWD and MPI-M: Description of the non-hydrostatic dynamical core. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 141, 563–579.
  • Dipankar, A. et al. (2015). Large eddy simulation using the general circulation model ICON. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 7(3), 963–986.
  • Heinze, R. et al. (2017). Large-eddy simulations over Germany using ICON: a comprehensive evaluation. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 143(702), 69–100.
  • Giorgetta, M. A. et al. (2018). ICON‐A, the atmosphere component of the ICON Earth system model: I. Model description. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10.
  • Crueger, T. et al. (2018). ICON-A, the atmosphere component of the ICON Earth system model: II. Model evaluation. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 10.

Hydrostatic atmosphere

  • Wan, H. et al. (2013): The ICON-1.2 hydrostatic atmospheric dynamical core on triangular grids. Part 1: Formulation and performance of the baseline version. Geoscientific Model Development, 6(3), 735–763.

External submodel for Aerosols and Reactive Trace gases (ART)
  • Schröter, J., Rieger, D., Stassen, C., Vogel, H., Weimer, M., Werchner, S., Förstner, J., Prill, F., Reinert, D., Zängl, G., Giorgetta, M., Ruhnke, R., Vogel, B., and Braesicke, P.: ICON-ART 2.1: a flexible tracer framework and its application for composition studies in numerical weather forecasting and climate simulations, Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 4043-4068,, 2018.

  • Rieger, D., Bangert, M., Bischoff-Gauss, I., Förstner, J., Lundgren, K., Reinert, D., Schröter, J., Vogel, H., Zängl, G., Ruhnke, R., and Vogel, B.: ICON–ART 1.0 – a new online-coupled model system from the global to regional scale, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1659-1676,, 2015.
  • Donner, L. J., O'Brien, T. A., Rieger, D., Vogel, B., and Cooke, W. F.: Are atmospheric updrafts a key to unlocking climate forcing and sensitivity?, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12983-12992,, 2016.
  • Weimer, M., Schröter, J., Eckstein, J., Deetz, K., Neumaier, M., Fischbeck, G., Hu, L., Millet, D. B., Rieger, D., Vogel, H., Vogel, B., Reddmann, T., Kirner, O., Ruhnke, R., and Braesicke, P.: An emission module for ICON-ART 2.0: implementation and simulations of acetone, Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2471-2494,, 2017.
  • Gasch, P., Rieger, D., Walter, C., Khain, P., Levi, Y., Knippertz, P., and Vogel, B.: Revealing the meteorological drivers of the September 2015 severe dust event in the Eastern Mediterranean, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13573-13604,, 2017.
  • Rieger, D., Steiner, A., Bachmann, V., Gasch, P., Förstner, J., Deetz, K., Vogel, B., and Vogel, H.: Impact of the 4 April 2014 Saharan dust outbreak on the photovoltaic power generation in Germany, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13391-13415,, 2017.
  • Eckstein, J., Ruhnke, R., Pfahl, S., Christner, E., Dyroff, C., Reinert, D., Rieger, D., Schneider, M., Schröter, J., Zahn, A., and Braesicke, P.: From climatological to small scale applications: Simulating water isotopologues with ICON-ART-Iso (version 2.1), Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,, in review, 2017.


Libraries used by ICON



  • Climate Data Interface
    CDI is a C and Fortran Interface to access climate and NWP model data.
    Supported data formats are GRIB and NetCDF.